DC Water Pump Comprehensive Guide
Estimated Reading Time: 12 minutes
Table of Contents
What is DC Water Pump?
Water pumps can be classified from many dimensions. DC water pump refers to the pump which is classified based on the type of power supply and uses a DC power source. The DC power source could be a constant voltage supply, a battery, or a solar panel.
Want to know how to classify water pumps from other dimensions? This article will help you:
3 Kinds of Power Supplies for DC Water Pumps
Constant Voltage Supply
A constant power supply is designed to maintain a constant voltage during the machine’s working. It could be provided by an AC/DC adapter or from the motherboard inside of the equipment. The output voltage is usually accurate due to strict circuit control, and it is beneficial to guarantee the pump’s service life.
Battery Powered Supply
A battery can be used to power the DC water pump, and it is usually a good choice. But be aware that the battery’s quality significantly influences the pump’s operation.
The frequent problem is that many poor-quality batteries will exceed their rated voltage when fully charged and will be less when they have been run for a while.
The result of using poor-quality batteries is that the pump cannot operate at its rated power. And this will significantly reduce the pump’s lifespan because the exceeding voltage will cause the pump to burn out.
You should solve this problem in two ways:
- Use better batteries.
- Purchase water pump that can run at wide voltage.
Solar Panel Power Supply
The solar panel converts energy from the sun into electrical energy. As a kind of clean energy, solar energy is applied in more and more fields. Almost all DC water pumps can be powered by solar panels. But to be honest, solar panel power supply is not a good choice for most DC water pumps.
The output voltage directly provided by the solar panel fluctuates wildly. As mentioned above, it will reduce the pump’s stability and lifespan. Using a general DC water pump directly connected to the solar panel may work fine, but you may encounter many weird things: suddenly stuck, burned out, etc.
To make the pump work stably and durable, we should solve problems from two aspects:
- Install batteries or specialized circuits for solar panels to adjust the output voltage.
- Purchase solar water pumps with dedicated design circuits.
DC Water Pump vs AC Water Pump
AC water pump uses 50Hz/60Hz low-frequency AC power directly from the national grid, so its RPM is slow. The size and power consumption of the AC water pump with the same head are 5~10 times that of the DC water pump. The advantages are that there are many manufacturers and the price is cheap. The disadvantages are low efficiency, no energy saving, inability to adjust flow rate, etc.
DC water pump uses flexible power suppliers as mentioned above. It has many advantages, including safety, ease of installation, high efficiency & energy saving, long lifespan, and quieter. In addition, the DC water pump has another significant advantage: it can provide ample torque and pressure based on its high RPM. As a result, the DC water pump can provide a much higher max head than the AC water pump of the same size. And generally, the max head of a pump is more important than its max flow rate.
DC Water Pump Applications
DC water pumps are gradually replacing AC water pumps and are being applied in more and more industries. So what are the uses of DC Water Pump?
Circulation System in Various Machines
As the name suggests, the circulating pump is named from the dimension of its functionality. It is used to circulate liquids to transfer heat in a closed circuit, whether a cooling or heating system.
In such applications, pump is used to protect core components of equipment. So, besides the performance requirements, we want absolute reliability and durability. From this point, the DC water pump, especially brushless DC pump, is undoubtedly a good choice.
Some machines that contain circulation systems include electric vehicles, computers, data storage servers, various machining equipments, laser machines, plumbing mattress, beauty equipments, medical equipments, office equipments, etc.
Attention, in this kind of application, we need super durability & reliability of the pump for 24 hours of continuous running.
Of course, DC water pumps could be used in many other fields. Such as hydroponic systems, green walls, solar irrigation, water-saving machine, intelligent toilet, aquarium, kitchen planting, garden fountains, water features, water heater boosters, etc.
More and more advanced technology industries, such as energy storage and renewable resource industries, have started using DC water pumps for their new projects and products.
What are the common problems of DC water pumps?
While the DC water pump has many advantages, it also has some difficult problems to overcome.
Power Consumption Limits
DC water pump’s power consumption limits are based on various aspects. The first is heat dissipation. The winding coil of DC water pump will generate lots of heat during operation, and the higher the pump’s power consumption, the more heat will be generated.
Within a specific power consumption range, we can balance the heat well. But if the power consumption is too high, the pump has the risk of burn out due to the high internal temperature.
The second reason for power consumption limitation comes from the power supply. If we cannot use the standard power supply on the market and need to customize a power supply, then the DC water pump is challenging to use widely.
Due to the power consumption limits, the DC water pump is not suitable for some scenarios with high loads.
Difficult to Handle Liquid Containing Impurities
The features of compact size and unique structure bring various benefits to DC water pumps. However, the consequent disadvantage is that the small DC water pump is difficult to pump liquid containing impurities.
The particles in the medium will cause the pump to get stuck and stop working and will also damage the impeller and rotor inside the pump.
To ensure the stability and durability of the pump when used in a medium containing impurities, we usually need an appropriate filter device before the pump’s inlet.
Advanced Functions of DC Water Pump
What functions can be added to small DC water pumps?
Unlike traditional pumps, it is possible to add a variety of customized functions to small DC water pumps now.
How is this accomplished?
It is based on the use of MCU (Microcontroller Unit).
The functions that can be added to small DC water pumps include: Speed Feedback, Water Shortage Protection, Stuck Protection, Overvoltage Protection, Overload Protection, Low Voltage Start, PWM Control, Analog Signal Control, DMX512 Signal Control, Sine Wave Control, Constant Speed Operation, etc.
Note that only the small DC water pump using MCU (for example, BLDC Pump) can be added advanced functions like the above. Advanced functions development allows the pump to fit perfectly into the control system of your machine.
How to Choose Right DC Water Pumps?
If you are a Product Engineer
If you are a product engineer looking for the right pump for your new project or product, you must already have some basic knowledge of the pump and have your requirements for specific parameters. Our recommendations are as follows:
- Make sure the max head and max flow can meet your needs. In many cases, the max head is more vital because it determines the pump’s flow under a workload. You can view the actual flow the pump can provide at a certain height through the pump’s performance curve. Learn more about how the max head affects the pump flow here.
- Select the pump with the correct rated voltage and current that matches your machine or project.
- Select the right size, including the dimensions of the pump body and its inlet and outlet.
- Confirm the additional functional requirements of the pump.
Sometimes a single pump can only meet some of the above requirements. At this time, we need to make some adjustments. For example, use adapters to convert the size of the inlet and outlet of the pump.
If you are not a Professional
If you are not a professional, you should first find a technical pre-sales consultant instead of an intermediary sales. Then describe in detail what you will use the pump to do and every specific point in the usage scenario: such as the height you need to pump the water, the desired water output per minute, the ambient temperature used, the humidity, whether the medium is clean, etc. And finally, you can get a comprehensive solution and some suggested models.
Points to Note When Using a DC Pump
- Ensure using the pump under the suitable power supply. Don’t reversely connect the power cord of the pump. Don’t use the pump with a power supply exceeding the rated voltage. Generally, overvoltage and reverse wiring may burn out the pump. Some DC water pumps have self-protection and wide-voltage operation ability. You should consult before your purchasing.
- Avoid running the pump without water. Even short dry runs can easily damage the pump due to the rapidly generated heat. This is determined by the compact structure of the small DC water pump.
- Pay attention to see if the pump has a self-priming function. If the pump is not a self-priming pump, it must be installed under the liquid level.
- Make sure the medium is clean and prevent impurities from entering the pump. Regular checks can increase the pump’s lifespan.
The Development Prospect of DC Water Pump
There is no doubt that due to its many advantages, DC pumps will begin to replace AC pumps in more and more fields. Especially in the area of small water pumps, DC water pumps will occupy an absolute dominant position. Let’s take a look at the influence of DC water pump’s characteristics on its development prospects.
- The brushless and sensorless commutation technology significantly improves the pump’s service life, especially in heavy work duty like 24 hours continuous operation.
- Using three-phase or multi-phase windings improves the small DC water pump’s power limitation. It means we can get a more powerful pump with higher pressure and a more significant flow rate.
- The sine wave control technology makes the pump run more smoothly and super quietly.
More and more advanced technologies are applied to small DC pumps, such as strong neodymium rare earth magnets rotor, various more corrosion-resistant materials, etc. Unlike AC pumps, DC water pumps are endowed with various possibilities to be used anywhere.